Interestingly, zinc enhances the stereoselectivity of the polymerization of nucleotides under reaction conditions designed to simulate the environment for prebiotic reactions. [, Wintergerst ES, Maggini S, Hornig DH. Zinc is a bluish-white metal which is used to make other metals, or to cover other metals, such as steel, as a protective coating. Although studies examining the effect of zinc treatment on cold symptoms have had somewhat conflicting results, overall zinc appears to be beneficial under certain circumstances. [, Brooks WA, Santosham M, Naheed A, Goswami D, Wahed MA, Diener-West M, et al. [, Evans JR. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for slowing the progression of age-related macular degeneration. A few examples are provided below. [, Bhutta ZA, Bird SM, Black RE, Brown KH, Gardner JM, Hidayat A, et al. Includes a variety of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products, and oils. As previously noted, the safety of intranasal zinc has been called into question because of numerous reports of anosmia (loss of smell), in some cases long-lasting or permanent, from the use of zinc-containing nasal gels or sprays [17-19]. Studies show that poor, malnourished children in India, Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia experience shorter courses of infectious diarrhea after taking zinc supplements [64]., Advance data from vital and health statistics no 258,,, Oysters, cooked, breaded and fried, 3 ounces, Baked beans, canned, plain or vegetarian, ½ cup, Breakfast cereal, fortified with 25% of the DV for zinc, 1 serving, Oatmeal, instant, plain, prepared with water, 1 packet, Chicken breast, roasted, skin removed, ½ breast. The galvanized finish is coated with zinc to stop it from rusting. Effect of treatment with zinc gluconate or zinc acetate on experimental and natural colds. Zinc in the fetus and newborn. [, Prasad AS. Zinc is widely used for plating that imparts corrosion resistant upper layer to various metals. These alterations in immune function might explain why low zinc status has been associated with increased susceptibility to pneumonia and other infections in children in developing countries and the elderly [55-58]. The FNB has established ULs for zinc (Table 3). 2009 Feb;5(2):106-11. [, Eby GA, Halcomb WW. Includes a variety of protein foods, including seafood, lean meats and poultry, eggs, legumes (beans and peas), nuts, seeds, and soy products. Nickel is a component of a hydrolase (urease), of hydrogenase, of CO dehydrogenase, and of S-methyl CoM reductase, which catalyzes the terminal step in methane production by methanogenic bacteria. Despite the small number of characterized Ni-proteins, it is clear that many different environments exist, from apparently direct coordination to protein ligands (urease) to the tetrapyrrole F430 in methylreductase and the multiple metal sites of Ni and Fe-S in a hydrogenase from the bacterium Desulfovibrio gigas. J Am Coll Nutr 1996;15:113-20. Zinc is relatively abundant in biological materials.8,9 The major location of zinc in the body is metallothionein, which also binds copper, chromium, mercury, and other metals. Zinc. Therapeutic effects of oral zinc in acute and persistent diarrhea in children in developing countries: pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials. This allows zinc to make contact with the rhinovirus in those areas. The value of methods to determine zinc deficiency in patients with Crohn's disease. Neither zinc gluconate nor zinc acetate lozenges affected the duration or severity of cold symptoms in 281 subjects with natural (not experimentally induced) colds in another trial [71]. January 2011; Journal of Clinical Toxicology s3(01) DOI: 10.4172/2161-0495.S3-001. Zinc nutritional status is difficult to measure adequately using laboratory tests [2,34,35] due to its distribution throughout the body as a component of various proteins and nucleic acids [36]. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68 (2 Suppl):509S -12S. Interestingly, certain bacteria (Azotobacter) have alternative nitrogenases, which are produced when molybdenum is deficient and which contain vanadium and iron or only iron. The manufacturer recalled these products from the marketplace. The results showed that MTF-1 has physiologic significance and can act as a repressor of ZIP10 under normal cellular levels of zinc. ... Foods in nutrient-dense forms contain essential vitamins and minerals and also dietary fiber and other naturally occurring substances that may have positive health effects. Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: vegetarian diets. Effects of zinc deficiency on Th1 and Th2 cytokine shifts. J Trop Pediatr 1997;43:192-8. Vanadium in a sea squirt (tunicate), a primitive vertebrate (Figure 1.2B), is concentrated in blood cells, apparently as the major cellular transition metal, but whether it participates in the transport of dioxygen (as iron and copper do) is not known. Oysters contain more zinc per serving than any other food, but red meat and poultry provide the majority of zinc in the American diet. Your body doesn’t store zinc, so regular intake is required to avoid a deficiency. [, Navarro S, Valderrama R, To-Figueras J, Gimenez A, Lopez JM, Campo E, et al. Zinc is important for growth and for the development and health of body tissues. Prolonged use of thiazide diuretics could deplete zinc tissue levels, so clinicians should monitor zinc status in patients taking these medications. liver both during zinc restriction and zinc excess. High dose zinc increases hospital admissions due to genitourinary complications. J Infect Dis 2000;182 (Suppl):S62-8. Pediatrics 2008;121:326-36. Reductions in a copper-containing enzyme, a marker of copper status, have been reported with even moderately high zinc intakes of approximately 60 mg/day for up to 10 weeks [2]. Zinc toxicity can occur in both acute and chronic forms. [, Jafek BW, Linschoten MR, Murrow BW. [, Kang YJ, Zhou Z. Zinc prevention and treatment of alcoholic liver disease. AREDS2 found that a formulation providing 25 mg zinc (about one-third the amount in the original formulation) provided the same protective effect against developing advanced AMD. A daily intake of zinc is required to maintain a steady state because the body has no specialized zinc storage system [10]. [, Bahl R, Bhandari N, Hambidge KM, Bhan MK. [, Caulfield LE, Zavaleta N, Shankar AH, Merialdi M. Potential contribution of maternal zinc supplementation during pregnancy to maternal and child survival. J Am Med Assoc 1980;244:1960-1. Plasma zinc status, growth, and maturation in children with sickle cell disease. Zinc gluconate is used to treat and to prevent zinc deficiency. The number of redox centers in some Mo-proteins exceeds the number of electrons transferred; reasons for this are unknown currently. About 2.5g of zinc is present in an average human body, whereas we consume almost 15 milligrams per day. The DV for zinc on the new Nutrition Facts and Supplement Facts labels and used for the values in Table 2 is 11 mg for adults and children aged 4 years and older [15]. [, Whittaker P. Iron and zinc interactions in humans. [, Maret W, Sandstead HH. In addition, results from a pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials of zinc supplementation in developing countries suggest that zinc helps reduce the duration and severity of diarrhea in zinc-deficient or otherwise malnourished children [65]. [, Penttilä O, Hurme H, Neuvonen PJ. People at risk of zinc deficiency or inadequacy need to include good sources of zinc in their daily diets. Approximately 30%–50% of alcoholics have low zinc status because ethanol consumption decreases intestinal absorption of zinc and increases urinary zinc excretion [47]. Mild human zinc deficiency produces an imbalance between cell-mediated and humoral immunity. Zinc, chemical symbol Zn, is a corrosion resistant metal with a bluish white color. However, some evidence suggests that zinc intakes among older adults might be marginal. Man-made zinc alloy products have been reliably dated as far back as 500 BC, and zinc was first intentionally added to copper to form brass around 200-300 BC. J Infect Dis 2008 ;197:795-802. The peptidases, kinases, and phosphorylases are most sensitive to zinc depletion. Currently, these safety concerns have not been found to be associated with cold lozenges containing zinc. In: Mills CF, ed. J Am Coll Nutr 1996;15:340-4. Supplements contain several forms of zinc, including zinc gluconate, zinc sulfate, and zinc acetate. Meat and seafood are rich in zinc.1, 2 The role of zinc in human health and functioning has primarily focused on dietary supplementation for the promotion of health and disease prevention. 8. Mol Aspects Med 2005;26:391-404. These values, which vary by age and gender [2], include the following: The current RDAs for zinc are listed in Table 1 [2]. In 77 participants with natural colds, a combination of zinc gluconate nasal spray and zinc orotate lozenges (37 mg zinc every 2–3 wakeful hours) was also found to have no effect on the number of asymptomatic patients after 7 days of treatment [72]. Iron fortification programs have been credited with improving the iron status of millions of women, infants, and children. 0; Significance of Zinc in a human body. Zinc is also found in many cold lozenges and some over-the-counter drugs sold as cold remedies. Clinical and laboratory assessment of zinc deficiency in Dutch children. [, Lansdown AB, Mirastschijski U, Stubbs N, Scanlon E, Agren MS. Zinc in wound healing: theoretical, experimental, and clinical aspects. Food Assistance and Nutrition Report Number 36, 2003. Zinc gluconate may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide. Techniques to increase zinc bioavailability include soaking beans, grains, and seeds in water for several hours before cooking them and allowing them to sit after soaking until sprouts form [41]. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): Average daily level of intake estimated to meet the requirements of 50% of healthy individuals; usually used to assess the nutrient intakes of groups of people and to plan nutritionally adequate diets for them; can also be used to assess the nutrient intakes of individuals. For infants aged 0 to 6 months, the FNB established an AI for zinc that is equivalent to the mean intake of zinc in healthy, breastfed infants. A reversible cause of sideroblastic anemia and bone marrow depression. However, use of stored iron is reduced by copper deficiency, which suggests that iron metabolism may depend on copper proteins, such as the serum protein ceruloplasmin, which can function as a ferroxidase, and the cellular protein ascorbic acid oxidase, which also is a ferrireductase. [, Shankar AH, Prasad AS. Research has not determined whether differences exist among forms of zinc in absorption, bioavailability, or tolerability. Patients with chronic leg ulcers have abnormal zinc metabolism and low serum zinc levels [59], and clinicians frequently treat skin ulcers with zinc supplements [60]. Dig Dis Sci. [, Rink L, Gabriel P. Zinc and the immune system. [, Krebs NF. Zinc toxicity is not a common problem, but can occur from overuse of supplements or significant environmental exposure. [, Naber TH, van den Hamer CJ, Baadenhuysen H, Jansen JB. [, Wang LC, Busbey S. Images in clinical medicine. Individuals who have or are developing AMD should talk to their healthcare provider about taking a zinc-containing AREDS supplement. Zinc is an essential trace element that activates several hundred enzymatic reactions. [. [, Hooper PL, Visconti L, Garry PJ, Johnson GE. However, the authors of a systematic review and meta-analysis published in 2007 concluded that zinc is not effective for the primary prevention of early AMD [77], although zinc might reduce the risk of progression to advanced AMD. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68 (2 Suppl):499S-508S. Get the latest public health information from CDC: Of the trace minerals, this element is second only to iron in its concentration in the body. Solomons NW. Phytates—which are present in whole-grain breads, cereals, legumes, and other foods—bind zinc and inhibit its absorption [2,12,13]. Nat Clin Pract Neurol. Brown KH, Allen LH, Peerson J. Zinc supplementation and children's growth: a meta-analysis of intervention trials. [, Fabris N, Mocchegiani E. Zinc, human diseases and aging. However, research has not shown that the general use of zinc sulfate in patients with chronic leg ulcers or arterial or venous ulcers is effective [61,62]. Interaction with other anticopper agents. Several important functions of zinc include: Making DNA and RNA, which is important to actively dividing cells Zinc is a nutrient that plays many vital roles in your body. Zinc measurements are used to detect and monitor industrial, dietary, and accidental exposure to zinc. Gastrointestinal surgery and digestive disorders (such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and short bowel syndrome) can decrease zinc absorption and increase endogenous zinc losses primarily from the gastrointestinal tract and, to a lesser extent, from the kidney [2,29,38,39]. Zinc deficiency in patients with sickle cell disease. Second, the biological roles of each remain largely unknown.18 Finally, each has served as a probe to characterize the sites of other metals, such as iron and zinc. It’s important for healing injuries and creating DNA, the genetic blueprint in all of your cells. Wound Repair Regen 2007;15:2-16. Anosmia after intranasal zinc gluconate use. The largest workable lodes are in Australia, Asia, and the United States. While use of these products as directed (0.5–1.5 g/day) is not of concern, chronic, excessive use can lead to zinc toxicity, resulting in copper deficiency and neurologic disease. Such toxicity has been reported in individuals who used 2 or more standard 2.4 oz tubes of denture cream per week [20,21]. Chromium imbalance affects sugar metabolism and has been associated with the glucose tolerance factor in animals. Copper and Zinc, Biological Role and Significance of Copper/Zinc Imbalance. Researchers have suggested that both zinc and antioxidants delay the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and vision loss, possibly by preventing cellular damage in the retina [74,75]. 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